Intro

Device encryption help you protect your data from leak when device was stolen or missing 🚓 Bitlocker encryption method uses 48 digit sequence code as an recovery key. In case something happens and you don’t have this recovery key stored somewhere safe (eg. AzureAD), data on disk is lost forever…⚰️
Better safe than sorry!

Backup Bitlocker recovery key

You can store recovery key in local Active Directory or Azure Active Directory. Sending key to AD requires line of sight with domain controller where for AAD Internet connection is enough. Let’s stick with AAD 💪

To perform backup you will need open PowerShell as an administrator and execute

$BitLocker = Get-BitLockerVolume -MountPoint $env:SystemDrive
$RecoveryProtector = $BitLocker.KeyProtector | Where-Object { $_.KeyProtectorType -eq 'RecoveryPassword' }

BackupToAAD-BitLockerKeyProtector -MountPoint $env:SystemDrive -KeyProtectorId $RecoveryProtector.KeyProtectorID

It will send System drive recovery key to AAD! What if there are other encrypted fixed drives? A little more scripting is necessary

#Logs folder
$OperatingFolder = 'C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft\Temp'
#Interate through all fixed drives and create object representations
try {
    $GetDeviceVolumes = Get-Volume | Where-Object { $PSItem.DriveType -eq 'Fixed' } | Select-Object DriveLetter | Where-Object { $PSItem.DriveLetter -ne $null }
    $RecoveryPasswordsArray = @()
    foreach ($Volume in $GetDeviceVolumes.DriveLetter) {
        New-Variable "GetRecoveryPasswordsFor$Volume" -Force | Out-Null
        Set-Variable -Name $("GetRecoveryPasswordsFor$Volume") -Value $((Get-BitLockerVolume -MountPoint $volume`: -ErrorAction Stop).Keyprotector | Where-Object {
                $PSItem.KeyProtectorType -eq 'RecoveryPassword'
            })
        $RecoveryPasswordsArray += Get-Variable "GetRecoveryPasswordsFor$Volume"
    }
} catch {
    $_ | Out-File $OperatingFolder\bitlockerbackup.error
}
#for every found drive perform backup
foreach ($Keys in $RecoveryPasswordsArray) {
    if ($null -eq $Keys.Value) {
        Continue
    } else {
        $KeysCount = ($Keys.Value | Measure-Object).Count
        try {
            if ($KeysCount -gt 1) {
                foreach ($Password in $Keys.Value.GetEnumerator()) {
                    BackupToAAD-BitLockerKeyProtector -MountPoint "$($Keys.Name[-1])`:" -KeyProtectorId $Password.KeyProtectorId -ErrorAction Stop | Out-Null
                    Write-Output 'Key sent'
                    'Key sent' | Out-File $OperatingFolder\bitlockerbackup.ok
                }
            } else {
                BackupToAAD-BitLockerKeyProtector -MountPoint "$($Keys.Name[-1])`:" -KeyProtectorId $Keys.Value.KeyProtectorId -ErrorAction Stop | Out-Null
                Write-Output 'Key sent'
                'Key sent' | Out-File $OperatingFolder\bitlockerbackup.ok
            }
        } catch {
            Write-Output 'Error during backup'
            $_ | Out-File $OperatingFolder\bitlockerbackup.error
            Exit 1
        }
    }
}

Recovery keys are stored in device blade in AAD also in MEM portal

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Additionally you can search for key by providing its ID here

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Graph API

Prerequisites

In november 2020 Microsoft provided beta API to list all keys and get key details using Microsoft Graph. Well…at last!😑 Click here to jump to documentation.

I’m interested in listing all recovery keys in AAD. To be able to do that you need specific set of permissions

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As you can see these are Delegated permissions so you will need combination of user role and cloud app 🤝 Start with creating user and assign one of the roles from above. For increased security use Azure KeyValut for password rotation or my privileged service account solution to increase protection even further 🔑

Next step is creating app registration for Microsoft Graph calls. Go to apps and click on New registration

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Enter app name and register

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Next step is to add permissions for your app

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Remember to grant admin consent

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NOTE: You can remove default API permissions

You will also need client secret to be able to authenticate.

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Copy secret immediately 👈

Powershell runbook

Now that we have everything in place you can proceed with scripting! To be able to use Microsoft Graph API with Delegated user permissions you need to generate Oauth2 token. Here is how to do that

#Client and user data
$AccountName = "[email protected]"
$AccountPassword = 'XXXXXXXXXXXXX'
$ClientId = "XXXXXXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXXXXXXXXX"
$ClientSecret = 'XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX'
$TenantID = "XXXXXXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXXXXXXXXX"
$GraphUri = 'https://graph.microsoft.com'
$GraphVersion = 'beta'

# Authentication url
$AzureResourceURI = "https://login.microsoftonline.com/$TenantID/oauth2/v2.0/token"

# Construct the Body for the POST
$Body = "grant_type=password"`
 + "&username=" + $Accountname `
 + "&client_id=" + $ClientId `
 + "&client_secret=" + $ClientSecret`
 + "&password=" + $AccountPassword `
 + "&scope=https://graph.microsoft.com/.default"

# The result should contain a token for use with Graph
$Response = Invoke-WebRequest -Uri $AzureResourceURI -Method POST -Body $Body -UseBasicParsing
$ResponseJSON = $Response | ConvertFrom-Json

# Add the token to headers for the Graph request
$Headers = @{
Authorization = "Bearer " + $ResponseJSON.access_token
}

#Run API call
$Deviceuri = "$GraphUri/$GraphVersion/devices'
$AllDevices = Invoke-RestMethod -Uri $Deviceuri -Headers $Headers -Method Get

OBVIOUSLY you should not keep your passwords and secrets as plain text in script!! It’s better to use variables or credentials in Automation Account 😉 With such generated token you can proceed and make API call for bitlocker recovery keys

#Required header modification for bitlocker call
$Bitlockerheader = @{
  'Authorization'      = $Headers.Authorization
  'ocp-client-name'    = 'Bitlocker Recovery Keys'
  'ocp-client-version' = '1.2'
}

$bitlockerkeys = @()
$Bitlockeruri = "$GraphUrl/$GraphVersion/bitlocker/recoveryKeys"
$bitlockerkeysuri = Invoke-RestMethod -Uri $Bitlockeruri -Headers $Bitlockerheader -Method Get
$bitlockerkeys += $bitlockerkeysuri.value
while ($bitlockerkeysuri.'@odata.nextLink') {
	$NextBatchRequest = $bitlockerkeysuri.'@odata.nextLink'
	$bitlockerkeysuri = Invoke-RestMethod -Uri $NextBatchRequest -Headers $Bitlockerheader -Method Get
	$bitlockerkeys += $bitlockerkeysuri.value
}

NOTE: As stated in documentation header requires ocp-client-name and ocp-client-version

As an result you will receive list of keys

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Alright we’ve got it! But how about taking it further…just bear with me a little more 😁

Proactive backup with Intune

Now that you have insights into state of bitlocker recovery keys in AAD you can take action if any device is missing a key. Start with creating PowerShell script deployment using Intune. Go to devices | scripts and create new Windows 10 configuration. Fill out the name and upload your backup script covered in first section of this post

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Assign some AAD group and finish

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Assign additional permissions to your application:

Device read will help you out identify devices by their names and interate through all Windows 10 devices managed by Intune. Group member is required for modifications of group which is assigned to Intune script profile. Now go to your runbook and expand it with following code

# Get all AAD devices and filter out Windows managed by Intune
$AllDevices = @()
$Deviceuri = "$GraphUrl/$GraphVersion/devices?`$filter=operatingSystem eq 'Windows' AND isManaged eq true AND accountEnabled eq true"
$Devices = Invoke-RestMethod -Uri $Deviceuri -Headers $Headers -Method Get
$AllDevices += $Devices.value
while ($Devices.'@odata.nextLink') {
	$NextBatchRequest = $Devices.'@odata.nextLink'
	$Devices = Invoke-RestMethod -Uri $NextBatchRequest -Headers $Headers -Method Get
	$AllDevices += $Devices.value
}
$AllDevices = $AllDevices | Where-Object { $PSItem.managementType -eq 'MDM' -and $PSItem.approximateLastSignInDateTime -gt $(Get-Date).AddMonths(-3) }

# Check group members
$BackupIntuneScriptGroup = 'XXXXXXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXXXXXXXXX'
$Groupuri = "$GraphUri/$GraphVersion/groups/$BackupIntuneScriptGroup/members"
$GroupMembers = Invoke-RestMethod -Uri $Groupuri -Headers $Headers -Method Get

# For every managed device check if there is a recovery key in AAD
$Results = @()
try {
	foreach ($device in $AllDevices) {
		if (($bitlockerkeys | Where-Object { $PSItem.deviceId -eq $device.deviceId } | Measure-Object).Count -gt 0) {
			if ($device.deviceId -in $GroupMembers.value.deviceId) {
				$GroupHeader = @{
					Authorization = $Headers.Authorization
				}
				$Response = Invoke-RestMethod -Method DELETE -Uri "$GraphUrl/$GraphVersion/groups/$BackupIntuneScriptGroup/members/$($device.id)/`$ref" -Headers $GroupHeader
				$Results += [PSCustomObject]@{
					DeviceName       = $device.displayName
					DeviceId         = $device.deviceId
					RecoveryKeyInAAD = $true
					Action           = 'Removed from group'
					AdditionalInfo   = "$(($bitlockerkeys | Where-Object { $PSItem.deviceId -eq $device.deviceId } | Measure-Object).Count) keys found"
				} | ConvertTo-Json
			} else {
				$Results += [PSCustomObject]@{
					DeviceName       = $device.displayName
					DeviceId         = $device.deviceId
					RecoveryKeyInAAD = $true
					Action           = 'None'
					AdditionalInfo   = "$(($bitlockerkeys | Where-Object { $PSItem.deviceId -eq $device.deviceId } | Measure-Object).Count) keys found"
				} | ConvertTo-Json
			}
		} else {
			if ($device.displayName -in $GroupMembers.value.displayName) {
				$Results += [PSCustomObject]@{
					DeviceName       = $device.displayName
					DeviceId         = $device.deviceId
					RecoveryKeyInAAD = $false
					Action           = 'None'
					AdditionalInfo   = 'Already in group'
				} | ConvertTo-Json
			} else {
				$BodyContent = @{
					"@odata.id" = "$GraphUrl/$GraphVersion/devices/$($device.id)"
				} | ConvertTo-Json
				$GroupHeader = @{
					Authorization  = $Headers.Authorization
					'Content-Type' = 'application/json'
				}

				$Response = Invoke-RestMethod -Method POST -Uri "$GraphUrl/$GraphVersion/groups/$BackupIntuneScriptGroup/members/`$ref" -Headers $GroupHeader -Body $BodyContent
				$Results += [PSCustomObject]@{
					DeviceName       = $device.displayName
					DeviceId         = $device.deviceId
					RecoveryKeyInAAD = $false
					Action           = 'Added to backup group'
					AdditionalInfo   = ''
				} | ConvertTo-Json
			}
		}
	}
} catch {
	Write-Error $device
	Write-Error $_
	break
}

Output

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Summary

Thanks to Microsoft Graph API you can run check against Azure AD for bitlocker recovery keys. If some device is missing a key Intune will take care of performing backup for you. Now you can rest without worries.

See you in next! 😉 🧠